Het is belangrijk eerst te weten of je een UEFI of legacy BIOS systeem hebt


De methode zoals hieronder beschreven zal bestaande besturingssystemen van de computer verwijderen voordat Arch Linux wordt ginstalleerd. Oefen in een Virtuele Machine of maak een backup van belangrijke data.

Vereisten voor het installeren van Arch Linux: – Een x86_64 compatibele machine – Minimaal 512 MB of RAM (aanbevolen 2 GB) – Ten minste 2 GB vrije schijfruimte (aanbevolen 20 GB voor basisgebruik met een desktopomgeving) – Een actieve internetverbinding – Een USB-station met minimaal 2 GB opslagcapaciteit – basiskennis met Linux-opdrachtregel


Stap 1: Download de Arch Linux ISO

Download Arch Linux


Stap 2: maak een USB of Arch Linux of gebruik de ISO bij de VM Een handige tool hiervoor is rufus



Stap 3: Start de PC met de live USB

Mocht dit niet werken controleer dan de BIOS/UEFI op "secure" boot en zet deze uit

Als het is gelukt zie je hetvolgende venster:

Kies voor: "Boot Arch Linux (x86_64)". Na een aantal controle stappen zul je in "login prompt" zijn als "root" user.


Stap 4: De Disk partitioneren

Hiervoor kan je gebruik maken van cfdisk, cgdisk of fdisk. Voor deze handleiding maak ik gebruik van fdisk.

Use this command to list all the disk and partitions on your system: fdisk -l Your hard disk should be labelled /dev/sda or /dev/nvme0n1. Please use the appropriate disk labeling for your system. I am using /dev/sda because that’s more common. First, select the disk you are going to format and partition: fdisk /dev/sda I suggest that you delete any existing partitions on the disk using command d. Once you have the entire disk space free, it’s time to create new partitions with command n. Check if you have UEFI mode enabled Create an ESP partition (For UEFI systems only) If you have a UEFI system, you must create an EFI partition at the beginning of your disk. Otherwise, skip this step. When you enter n, it will ask you to choose a disk number, enter 1. Stay with the default block size, when it asks for the partition size, enter +512M. EfI System Partition Creating EFI System Partition | Image Credit Sacha One important steps is to change the type of the EFI partition to EFI System (instead of Linux system). Enter t to change type. Enter L to see all the partition types available and then enter its corresponding number to the EFI system. Efi System Partition Change type of EFI System Partition | Image Credit Sacha Create root partition You need to create root partition for both UEFI and legacy systems. The common partitioning practice was/is to create root, swap and home partitions separately. You may just create a single root partition and create a swapfile and home under the root directory itself. So, in this approach, we’ll have a single root partition, no swap, no home. While you are in the fdisk command, press n to create a new partition. It will automatically give it partition number 2. This time keep on pressing enter to allocate entire remaining disk space to the root partition. root partition Picture for representational purpose only When you are done with the disk partitioning, enter w command to write the changes to the disk and exit out of fdisk command. Step 4: Create filesystem Now that you have your disk partitions ready, it’s time to create filesystem on it. Follow the steps for your system Creating filesystem for UEFI system So, you have two disk partitions and the first one is EFI type. Create a FAT32 file system on it: mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sda1 Now create an Ext4 filesystem on the root partition: mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda2 Creating filesystem for non-UEFI system Step 5: Connect to WiFi You can connect to WiFi interactively using this helpful utility called wifi-menu. Just enter this command and follow the steps: wifi-menu You should be able to see the active connections and connect to them using the password. Once you are connected, check if you could use internet by using the ping command: ping If you get bytes in reply, you are connected. Use Ctrl+C to stop the ping reply. Step 6: Select an appropriate mirror This is a big problem with installing Arch Linux. If you just go on installing it, you might find that the downloads are way too slow. In some cases, it’s so slow that the download fails. It’s because the mirrorlist (located in /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist) has a huge number of mirrors but not in a good order. The top mirror is chosen automatically and it may not always be a good choice. Thankfully, there is a fix for that. First sync the pacman repository so that you can download and install software: pacman -Syy Now, install reflector too that you can use to list the fresh and fast mirrors located in your country: pacman -S reflector Make a backup of mirror list (just in case): cp /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist.bak Now, get the good mirror list with reflector and save it to mirrorlist. You can change the country from US to your own country. reflector -c "US" -f 12 -l 10 -n 12 --save /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist All good to go now. Step 7: Install Arch Linux Since you have all the things ready, it’s time to finally install the Arch Linux. You’ll be installing it on the root directory so mount it first. Do you remember the name of the root partition? Use it to mount it: mount /dev/sda2 /mnt With root mounted, it’s time to use the wonderful pacstrap script to install all the necessary packages: pacstrap /mnt base linux linux-firmware vim nano It will take some time to download and install these packages. If the downloads get interrupted, no need to panic. You can run the above command once again and it resumed the download. I have added Vim and Nano text editor to the list because you’ll need to edit some files post installation. Step 8: Configure the installed Arch system Generate a fstab file to define how disk partitions, block devices or remote file systems are mounted into the filesystem. genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab Now use arch-chroot and enter the mounted disk as root. Actually, now you are using the just installed Arch Linux system on the disk. You’ll have to do some configuration changes to the installed system so that you could run it properly when you boot from the disk. arch-chroot /mnt Setting Timezone To set up timezone on Linux, you can use timedatectl command. First find your time zone: timedatectl list-timezones And then set it up like this (replace Europe/Paris with your desired time zone): timedatectl set-timezone Europe/Paris Setting up Locale This is what sets the language, numbering, date and currency formats for your system. The file /etc/locale.gen contains all the local settings and system language in a commented format. Open the file using Vim or Nano editor and uncomment (remove the # from the start of the line) the language you prefer. I have used en_GB.UTF-8 (English with Great Britain). Now generate the locale config in /etc directory file using the below commands one by one: locale-gen echo LANG=en_GB.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf export LANG=en_GB.UTF-8 Both locale and timezone settings can be changed later on as well when you are using your Arch Linux system. Network configuration Create a /etc/hostname file and add the hostname entry to this file. Hostname is basically the name of your computer on the network. In my case, I’ll set the hostname as myarch. You can choose whatever you want: echo myarch > /etc/hostname The next part is to create the hosts file: touch /etc/hosts And edit this /etc/hosts file with Vim or Nano editor to add the following lines to it (replace myarch with hostname you chose earlier): localhost ::1 localhost myarch Set up root passwd You should also set the password for the root account using the passwd command: passwd Step 9: Install Grub bootloader This is one of the crucial steps and it differs for UEFI and non-UEFI systems. Let me show it for the UEFI systems first. Make sure that you are still using arch-chroot. Install required packages: pacman -S grub efibootmgr Create the directory where EFI partition will be mounted: mkdir /boot/efi Now, mount the ESP partition you had created mount /dev/sda1 /boot/efi Install grub like this: grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --bootloader-id=GRUB --efi-directory=/boot/efi One last step: grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg Install grub on Non-UEFI systems Step 10: Install a desktop environment (GNOME in this case) First step is to install X environment. Type the below command to install the Xorg as display server. pacman -S xorg xorg-server Now, you can install GNOME desktop environment on Arch Linux using: pacman -S gnome The last step includes enabling the display manager GDM for Arch. I also suggest enabling Network Manager systemctl start gdm.service systemctl enable gdm.service systemctl enable NetworkManager.service Now exit from chroot using the exit command: exit And then shutdown your system shutdown now Don’t forget to take out the live USB before powering on the system again. If everything goes well, you should see the Grub screen and then the GNOME login screen. Final Words on Arch Linux installation A similar approach has been demonstrated in this video (watch in full screen to see the commands) by It’s FOSS reader Gonzalo Tormo: You might have realized by now that installing Arch Linux is not as easy as installing Ubuntu. However, with a little patience, you can surely accomplish it and then tell the world that you use Arch Linux. Arch Linux installation itself provides a great deal of learning. I recommend a few essential things to do after installing Arch Linux where you’ll find steps to install various other desktop environments and learn more about the OS. You can keep playing with it and see how powerful Arch is.